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One of the most important and must-have activities for grape care is the pruning of the vine in the fall. The yield of the bush next year depends on the timing of pruning and the correctness of its implementation. Later in the article, we will look at different options for pruning grapes for beginners and find out if it is possible to pick the leaves.
Why do you need pruning a vineyard in the fall before winter
The need for pruning is as follows:
- By cutting off excess shoots, the growers thereby redirect the amount of nutrients from the soil to healthier shoots.
- The frost resistance of the vine increases;
- As a result of the autumn formation of the bush, the yield increases. Growing back, young shoots will not shade neighboring ones;
- If you cut the branches regularly, the berries in the brush will be large in size and without loss of taste;
- The process of covering the vine for the winter is greatly simplified;
- The process of fruit ripening is accelerated, since in the spring the buds open before the active movement of the juices begins in the vine.
Spring and fall times to cut branches
The grapes are pruned depending on the variety and region of growth. For non-covering varieties, autumn pruning can be performed at any time before the active growth of the shoots begins. In the case when the winter is characterized by severe frosts, then cut off the branches in the spring.
Autumn pruning for dummies is of two types:
Pre-cut carried out in early October before the onset of frost. All green shoots should be removed. It is not recommended to trim brown shoots that are crunchy when bent.
Basic trimming is performed from 15 to 30 October, that is, after the onset of the first frost. After the preliminary cut, 14 days must pass. After inspecting the bush, all dried, damaged, not ripe, very thin shoots, as well as those that have an incorrect location, are removed. Those fruit vines that are better developed than others are cut into arrows.
Spring pruning is carried out at a time when the air temperature becomes + 3 degrees. Later, it is not recommended to carry out this procedure, since the cuts on the vine will tighten very slowly. This is one of the disadvantages of spring pruning. Another negative factor is that with abundant flow of juice with a vertical garter, it can get on the fruit buds, which will significantly reduce the yield, and can cause trunk rot.
Before proceeding with spring pruning, you need to check the trunk for damage and assess the condition of the bush in order to understand how much load can be given to the trunk. The spring procedure is divided into:
The difference is in the number of shoots growing from one root and in their length. When pruning in the fall on the vine, you need to leave the number of buds with a margin. In the spring, until the moment when the bush begins to develop rapidly, normalization is performed. The vine is rejuvenated by creating a new sleeve, and the old one is removed, leaving no more than 10 cm.
The cut must be performed in the direction of movement of the juices. At the same time, the young shoot develops rapidly. Along the way, you need to leave a few replacement vines. They will serve in the formation of vines in future seasons.
Summer pruning is essential for the bush. It regulates the yield.
By the summer, experienced growers already quite clearly understand how many bunches should be left on the vine, so as not to put unnecessary stress on the bush. Excess bunches left on the vine will lead to the depletion of the bush, and their insufficiency will lead to the formation of unnecessary stepsons.
Advantages of the summer cut:
- helps to create the required vine size;
- remove excess green mass pulling juices;
- to create free access of air and light to the bunches during the period of fruit filling.
At the initial stage of development, it is necessary to remove all weak processes, after the formation of 2 brushes, the top of the vine is pinched through 5 leaves. Do not leave the vine long, because the berries will be sour. All stepchildren, mustaches and extra leaves are also removed. In August, in order to accelerate the ripening of the fruits, it is necessary to carry out a hard cut of the shoots.
Cut off stepchildren cannot be left on the ground. This contributes to the development of diseases!
How to prune the vine correctly in the first year
Young grapes are pruned in order to:
- the formation of sleeves;
- growth stimulation;
- ensuring a good harvest.
In a young bush, 1 year old, the top is removed, leaving only two to four buds. They retreat 1 cm from the last peephole upward and perform a cut. This will be the basis for the fruiting sleeves for the next year.
In a 2-year-old vine, replacement knots are formed by cutting off the appendix into two eyes. Leave from 4 to 6 buds on the other process. The bush is cut in the same way as in the first year of life, while the harvest will be only in a year, and the bush will become much stronger.
When pruning a three-year-old bush, substitution knots and a fruiting shoot are formed. The replacement knots should be located below the main shoot and should be pruned by 3 eyes. At the main shoot, it is necessary to leave from five to ten buds. On some varieties, you can leave 10 to 12 buds on the shoot. With this procedure, the bush forms 4-6 fruiting arms in three years. This is quite enough for the ripening of the crop.
The purpose of the autumn procedure for young seedlings is the correct formation of the bush. Many novice growers make the mistake of not pruning for the first two years, not wanting to delay the harvest. This leads to the fact that the bush is too thick and extra shoots pull on themselves a large amount of nutrients. In addition, uncut bushes will be more difficult to cover for the winter.
Tools for trimming bushes
To properly prune the grapes, you will need the following tool:
- garden pruner;
- files, hacksaws;
- garden knives.
Pruners are used when removing one and two-year-old bushes with a vine thickness of no more than one and a half centimeters. In order to make a smoother cut, use pruning shears with two blades.
If the thickness of the perennial vine is less than eight centimeters, bow files are used for pruning. With a thickness of more than 8 cm, trimming is performed with a hacksaw. In hard-to-reach places, it is recommended to carry out with the help of a lopper.
Before performing work, the tool must be sharpened and processed.
Schemes of different types of pruning for old and young vines
Currently, there are several types of shaping scraps:
- one-sided and two-sided.
Fan pruning in spring
The convenience of this pruning is that with this option it is easy to replace the sleeves and adjust the number of fruit buds, and it is also convenient to cover the vine for the winter. On a single-lane trellis, place from two to four sleeves, and on a two-lane trellis from 4 to 8. On each sleeve, replace knots and 2-3 fruit arrows are left. The length of the sleeves should be different. This contributes to good lighting of the vines.
In the first year it is necessary to leave 1-2 shoots with several eyes. There should be several new shoots on the vine next year.
In the second year, if one process has developed, then 2 to 4 buds are left on it. If two have developed, then 2-3 buds are left on each. The third process should be cut short. It will serve to form the following processes. If there are 4 shoots, then it is necessary to form sleeves of them.
In the third year, 3 eyes are left on each shoot, so as not to load the vine. One inflorescence should be left on each sleeve in order to control the quality of the fruit. It is also necessary to form fruit links on the new sleeves. Provided that the vines are 2 years thicker than 7 mm. it is possible to leave on processes 6-7 buds for the formation of new processes.
In subsequent years, the shape of the bush is maintained by cutting off the arrows and fruit shoots from which the harvest has been taken. Held during the summer months. Sleeves should be renewed every seven or eight years.
This pruning is used if the stakes are the support for the bush. The size of the bowl depends on the size of the sleeves. If the sleeve is up to 50 cm long, then the bowl will be small. With a size of 50 to 70 cm - a medium bowl. Over 70 cm - large bowl.
The disadvantages of this type are:
- twisting the vine will lead to a deterioration in the intake of nutrients;
- leaves shade each other and receive a small amount of light;
- poor air access.
The technique is identical over the years to fan pruning.
Use this form for grafted bushes. The sleeves are cut on the seedling. Five knots remain on the head with two buds on each. Vines will grow from them in the future.
Cordon bush formation
1st year leave 2-3 buds on the bush to form powerful shoots.
2nd year with the onset of spring, young sleeves will grow, they will serve as a cordon. After bud break, thinning must be performed. The shoots are left every 30 cm. From the grown shoots, replacement knots are made, leaving 2-3 eyes on them.
In the following years it is necessary to increase the length of the sleeve and the number of hands The replacement of the cordons must be done one at a time. This will help avoid crop loss.
How you can do an anti-aging pruning
There are two methods of rejuvenation - full and partial.
Partial rejuvenation can be done when sleeves are formed at the bottom of the bush. When pruning in the fall, two buds are left on them. The old sleeves are partially cut, and some are cut according to the scheme:
- leave 6-7 buds on the upper shoot;
- the lower shoot is cut for replacement bitches.
In subsequent years, the sleeves of the second and third rows are formed from powerful substitutes. One part of the old vine is cut out, and 5-6 eyes are left on the other.
In the 4th year, the old sleeves are removed completely. Sections are covered with garden pitch. Young shoots form into a new bush.
Complete rejuvenation... Cutting off old bushes completely leads to the awakening of the buds on the bush and stumps. In spring, shoots grow actively and, under favorable conditions, they grow up to two meters. The next year, the first crop is removed from the shoots and a new bush is formed. Cutting off the old sleeves makes it possible to rid the new bush of pests that have formed nests in the old sleeves, as well as to renew the above-ground part of the bush.
Pruning grapes on an arch for beginners
There are several forms of arch trimming:
- one-shoulder cordon;
If the grapes are not covering, in this case a half-covered formation will do. With this formation, vines are taken from the main sleeve, which are placed on the upper trellis... A spare sleeve is located on the lower trellis. It should be the same length as the main one. At the very bottom of the bush, it is necessary to leave a coppice shoot and cut it off once a year - in the fall. Together with a spare shoot, it is sheltered for the winter. In case of successful wintering, in the summer the shoots that have grown from the spare sleeve are cut into 2-3 buds and several powerful shoots are grown from them.
If the main shoot is badly damaged in winter, it is cut out and the spare is lifted onto the upper trellis, and the coppice shoot replaces the spare. With this type of formation, you can harvest once a year.
How to prune a running bush
It is necessary to prune a neglected bush in early spring or late autumn. First you need to remove the old, damaged vines. To do this, an incision is made on the vine with a sharp knife. If the vine is green in the cut, then it is alive. If the vine is dry when cut, then such a vine is cut again, closer to the base. If the color is the same vine is removed completely. It is recommended to prune branches step by step.
- It is best to carry out pruning before the first frost or in the spring before April 1... It is necessary to remove all unripe or dry shoots, cut out all parts that have a gray or black bark. If the sleeve is frozen, then it is removed completely.
- After removing all extinct areas, examine the remaining shoots. Leave those with 10-12 buds and the thickness will be at least 5 cm. If there are few such shoots, then everything is left. Of the short ones, only those that will be at least 5 cm thick are left. They are left in five pieces per 2 running meters of trellis. They should be evenly spaced along the trellis.
- Annual shoots are 85% removed.
- In the summer, the buds of perennial sleeves will wake up and give a large number of shoots. All these shoots must be removed. As a result of such pruning, the harvest will not be large, but the taste of the fruit will be much higher.
- At the end of October, before the onset of frost, leaves, mustaches, stepsons must be cut off from the shoots. It is also necessary to remove all weak shoots, the thickness of which is less than 4 cm.
- In subsequent years, when pruning, form fruit links.
Vine care after pruning
If the pruning was carried out in the summer, then after this procedure, before the autumn pruning, it is necessary:
- Perform pinching. It is carried out by shortening the shoots, leaving 5 leaves over each bunch of grapes, and also pinching the tip of the vine to stop growth.
- Tying up shoots that have grown over the lower trellis by more than 22 cm.
- Watering and feeding;
- Carry out the chasing of the vine, leaving 14 leaves on the shoots to cut off the tops.
- Treat diseases and pests with fungicides. For this it is best to use "Topaz". Insecticides must be used to control pests. Processing is carried out 3 times per season.
Stop any treatments 21 days before harvest. If fungal diseases are found, process the entire vineyard!
After the autumn pruning, you must:
- Water it abundantly so that the soil is well saturated with moisture before winter.
- Loosen the soil well near the bush to prevent moisture stagnation and provide oxygen to the roots.
- Apply humus or rotted manure to the soil.
- With the onset of the first frosts, cover the grapes for the winter. Pine branches, sawdust, peat, hay are suitable for this.
By properly pruning the bushes and taking care of your vineyard on a regular basis, you can deservedly expect a good harvest next year. You can cut any grapes, including Isabella.
Secrets of the formation of productive grape bushes
Grapes are the favorite berry of more than half of humanity.
And if you also remember the delicious juice and the unique invention - wine and all its derivatives, it turns out that few garden crops can be compared with grapes.
Growing it is a troublesome business and there are no trifles in it. But, having once tried to grow a beautiful, fragrant and tasty bunch on their own, gardeners become keen winegrowers and, despite all the troubles and difficulties, they will plant vines again and again.
One of the most important factors is the correct formation of the grape bush.
What time of year is it better to prune grapes
Good results are obtained by cutting the shoot by a third of its total length - the plant does not suffer, a neat shape is maintained, and proper development is ensured
There are two opposite opinions. Some gardeners are inclined to believe that it is necessary to prune grapes only in the autumn. Others, on the contrary, consider it correct to carry out such a procedure in the spring.
Table: pros and cons of autumn pruning
|Helps to better prepare grapes for the winter cold||Incorrect timing will lead to fragility and breakage of the vine|
|Improves fertility for the next season||The procedure is time consuming, complicated by frost and low temperature|
|Increases plant resistance to subzero temperatures|
Table: advantages and disadvantages of spring work
|Suitable for regions with moderate winter cold||A poorly sharpened tool will make shallow cuts, which will disrupt the structure of the fibers of the vine, leading to rot|
|Provokes sap flow||If the flowing juice will wet the buds and eyes of the grapes, you can forget about the harvest|
|Allows you to get high plant productivity in the season||Improper crown formation will lead to the fact that in the summer the bush will try to develop shoots, and there will be no strength left for the fruits|
Make sure that the thickness of the branches is approximately the same - this nuance sets the shape of the vine
Much depends on how to cut grapes for the winter: yield, size of berries and even the frost resistance of the plant.
At first glance, pruning grapes in the fall for beginners can be difficult, but adhering to the chosen scheme and observing the rules, you can get an excellent result. Pruning young grapes consists in removing excess shoots according to the chosen growing scheme. Let's consider the most popular fan-shaped method.
In the second year of growing, inspect the seedling and identify the 2 strongest shoots. The one that is located below should be cut so that at least 2 buds remain. Another 1-3 can be made backups.
If everyone survives, the 2 largest are left in the spring, the rest are pinched. On the second (upper) shoot, 3-5 eyes should remain, plus a few in reserve. All other shoots are removed completely.
In the third year, the shoots form sleeves. They are cut off, leaving 2 of the strongest processes on each, while, again, the lower sprout is shortened to the 2nd eye (the so-called replacement knot), and the upper one - to the 7th or 8th eye. The replacement knot always contains at least 2 buds: from one a fruit shoot develops, which will give a vine with a harvest from the second - a replacement one, which will give strong shoots. In autumn, the fruit shoots are cut off completely, and again 2 strong shoots are left on the replacement ones, of which one will bear fruit, and the second, cut into 2 buds, will become a new replacement knot. The cycle repeats over and over again.
Depending on the variety, the size of the vineyard and a number of other conditions, the number of sprouts left may be greater. In any case, the kidneys need to be kept in reserve. Pruning can be used to rejuvenate the plant in the event of a sharp decline in yield.
To do this, you need to completely cut off the crown and dig up the bole to a depth of 15 cm. After that, the trunk is cut off at a depth of 10 cm, and several notches are made on the remaining 5 cm. The cut points are covered with clay, after which they are sprinkled with earth. In spring, the plant will produce young vines from which a new bush can be formed.
If you got an uncut vineyard, you need to put it in order as follows: at the beginning of September, cut off all young shoots growing on old sleeves at a height of up to 50 cm from the soil level, and shorten the rest by 10% and remove the side stepchildren. After the end of the leaf fall, choose the two most developed shoots at a height of 50–80 cm, of which, according to the standard scheme, form a replacement knot (on which 2 to 4 buds should remain) and a fruit vine (5 to 12 buds). Further trimming is carried out according to the general system.
Pruning grapes in the fall is carried out using a pruner (if the vine is thinner than 3 cm) or a hacksaw with fine teeth (if it is thicker). Tools must be sharp, as torn or squashed cuts can lead to infection or weakening of the plant.
It is recommended to make cuts beveled at 45 ° to the inner part of the bush. Finally, the plant needs to be covered: after removing the remaining branches from the trellis, lay them in the direction of the growth of the vine and fasten them to the ground. To protect them from the cold, they are covered with tarpaulins or a thick film.
The order of the formation of the trunk
- In the autumn of the first growing season, the seedling is cut into 2-3 eyes.
- In the spring of next year, the two most developed sprouts are selected. One - the main one - goes to the formation of the trunk. From above, the shoot is pinched to stop growth and allow it to ripen. The second shoot is reserved. In the fall, the stem is shortened to the desired height.
- On the second goal, the shoulders of the cordon are laid. In autumn, annual shoots are removed, with the exception of the two uppermost and most developed ones. Each of them is shortened by 2 kidneys. These are the future shoulders. At their level, a wire is pulled, to which the shoots are tied.
- In the fall of the third growing season, a fruit link is formed on the replacement knot. One shoot is shortened by 2 buds - this is the future replacement knot, the second - by 4-6 buds - is the future fruiting arrow.
- In the fourth year of the life of the bush, the foundations are laid for the development of fruit links - "horns". The shoulders are trimmed based on the grape variety. On their surface, shoots are left every 20 cm. Excess shoots are removed.
- For the fifth growing season, simple pruning is carried out: each shoot is shortened by 2-3 eyes.
- The formation of the bush according to the standard scheme is completed in the fall of the sixth year. The stems that have ripened in the current season are cut. In the upper part, traditionally, a couple of strong shoots are left. One for the fruit vine, cut into 6-7 buds, the second for the replacement knot, cut into 2-3 buds.
- In the future, autumn pruning is carried out in order to maintain shape. The fruitful vine of the current season is pruned annually. A new fruit link is formed from the replacement knot.
What to do if there are no shoots on the replacement knot or they are weak
In practice, there are often cases when, for various reasons, only one shoot developed on the replacement knots or did not develop at all.
If there is not a single shoot on the replacement knot, it is removed, and the fruit arrow is left. On it, the lower shoot from the outside is cut short into a knot, and one of the next shoots, the most developed, is shortened to a fruit arrow. All other shoots on last year's arrow are removed.
In the case when only one shoot has developed on a knot, depending on its location, it is cut either shortly by a knot or long by a fruit arrow. If the shoot takes an outward position, it is cut short by a replacement knot, and for the formation of an arrow, use the best developmental shoot on the fruiting arrow.
When only one upper shoot develops on a knot from an intra-ocular eye, it is cut off long, and only one reserve, well-developed shoot is left on the last year's arrow. The shoot on a knot is tied up with a bend, leaving two eyes under the bend, of which the lower one should occupy the outer position. Behind the bend on the horizontal part of the tied up shoot, four to eight well-developed eyes are left. With such a pruning and garter, the fruit link is restored again within a year. An abandoned reserve shoot is sometimes used as an additional fruit arrow.
In the first 5-6 years after planting, the grapes do not bear fruit, during this period the plant grows in mass, forms future fruit vines. Therefore, the essence of pruning young grapes is the formation of a bush, the selection of those vines that will subsequently bring harvest.
After this stage, the fruiting period begins, it lasts, depending on the grape variety, about 20-25 years. Pruning at this age consists in maintaining the shape of the bush, removing old and diseased shoots, and forming young fruiting vines.
After this, the most active phase, the extinction of the plant occurs, the gardener can carry out anti-aging pruning in order to prolong the fruiting of his vineyard.
Beginners who find it difficult to navigate by diagrams and drawings can watch a video about the different stages of grape development and the rules for pruning it at each age: